**Determining the Effect of Temperature and Half-Cell Combinations on the Efficiency of Galvanic Cells in Respect to Voltage and Gibb’s Free Energy**

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of temperature on the voltage output of different half-cell combinations in a galvanic cell in order to produce a more efficient battery. Producing a more efficient battery would reduce the number of batteries disposed into landfills. Therefore, the carbon footprint of battery disposal would become smaller and the environment would become greener. The experiment was conducted by heating or cooling the solutions used in the half-cell combinations and recording voltage. The Gibb’s free energy of the cells was then calculated. The data was analyzed with three ANOVA tests and one two sample t-test. The tests proved that the cells run at the higher temperatures produced a higher voltage than the ones at lower voltages. The tests also provided evidence which proved that the galvanic cells which utilized the magnesium and lead electrodes yielded the highest voltage.

### Research Conducted By:

Abser Halim

*Warren **Mott** High School*

Remon Hossain

*Warren** Mott** High School*